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Glossary beginning with A
A human proto-oncogene located on chromosome 9. The designation is taken from name of the scientist, Herbert Abelson MD, who discovered the gene. ABL1 activates a number of cell cycle-controlling proteins and enzymes. Mutations in the ABL1 gene are associated with chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML).
- Absolute Basophil Count
The total number of basophils in a sample of peripheral blood. It is calculated by multiplying the percentage of basophils (in decimal form) by the total number of white blood cells.
- Absolute Neutrophil Count
The total number of neutrophils in a sample of peripheral blood. It is calculated by multiplying the percentage of neutrophils (in decimal form) plus the percentage of bands (in decimal form) by the total number of white blood cells. The number of bands is usually quite low or even zero, so one may also obtain a fairly accurate ANC by leaving the percent of bands out of the equation. ANC of less than 1 k/ul may indicate stoppage of Gleevec therapy to allow the neutrophil counts to recover. Low ANC puts the patient at risk of infection since there is now less of the white blood cells that fight infections in the body. (neutrophils)
- Accelerated phase
An intermediate phase between the initial chronic phase and the third blastic phase of the disease; typically lasting beteen 6 to 9 months with an increase in blast cells seen in both marrow and peripheral blood. Disease symptoms are more apparent.
The extent to which therapy is taken as prescribed. Good adherence to TKI therapy is known to have a direct impact on optimal response to treatment.
One of two or more versions of a gene. We each two alleles for each gene, one version inherited from each parent.
- Allogeneic Transplant
Transplantation of cells taken from the bone marrow or stem cells taken from the peripheral blood of either a related or unrelated HLA matched donor.
- ALP- Alkaline phosphatase
An enzyme producted by the liver. High levels may indicate problems with liver function, however it is not specific to the liver and can be an indication of increased activity in the bone marrow caused by a high turnover of leukamic cells due to the effecs of therapy.
An enzyme made in the liver, also called SGPT. Elevated levels may be a sign of liver toxicity (hepatotoxicity).
Where the number of red blood cells (erythrocytes) is lower than normal, usually measured by a decrease in the amount of haemaglobin.
Abbreviation for absolute neutrophil count.
The natural process of programmed cell death which rids the body of cells that are either at the end or their natural useful life or have been damaged beyond repair.
An enzyme made by the liver, sometimes called SGOT. Elevated levels may be a sign of liver toxicity (hepatotoxicity).
- Autologous transplant
A transplant using stem cells taken from your own blood or marrow.
Any single one of the numbered pairs of chromosomes apart from either of the sex chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes numbered roughly in relation to size.