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Glossary beginning with M
- Major Cytogenetic Response
A reduction in the percentage of cells expressing the Philadelphia Chromosome to 35% or less in a CML patient.
- Major Molecular Response
Sigifying an optimal response to TKI therapy; also written as MR3 (3 log reduction from diagnosis) and/or 0.1% Bcr-Abl. (see MMR)
- Minimal Residual Disease
Small amounts of abnormal cells remaining, even when blood and marrow may appear to be normal; the amount residual cells can only be determined by molecular testing techniques such as qRT-PCR.
- Molecular Response
Levels of response to therapy shown by q-PCR testing. MR3 to MR5 are equivalent to reductions in levels of Bcr-Abl1 from 0.1% (MR3) down to as low as 0.001% (MR5).
- Molecular Targeted Therapy
See TKI- tryrosine kinase inhibitor.
Messenger RNA: in CML the oncogene BCR-ABL1 duplicates as mRNA (Bcr-Abl1) which moves out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm where it translates as a signalling protein, a receptor tyrosine kinase which is constitutively active, leading to uncontrolled.
An immature cell found in the bone marrow and not normally in the peripheral blood. Normally there are 0% myeloblasts in the peripheral blood and 0-5% blasts in the bone marrow.
A decrease in the ability of the blood cell-producing tissues of bone marrow to produce all types of blood cells, especially neutrophils and platelets.